Hillary Clinton

Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg
67th United States Secretary of State
In office
January 21, 2009 – February 1, 2013
PresidentBarack Obama
Preceded byCondoleezza Rice
Succeeded byJohn Kerry
United States Senator
from New York
In office
January 3, 2001 – January 21, 2009
Preceded byDaniel Patrick Moynihan
Succeeded byKirsten Gillibrand
First Lady of the United States
In role
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
PresidentBill Clinton
Preceded byBarbara Bush
Succeeded byLaura Bush
First Lady of Arkansas
In role
January 11, 1983 – December 12, 1992
GovernorBill Clinton
Preceded byGay Daniels White
Succeeded byBetty Tucker
In role
January 9, 1979 – January 19, 1981
GovernorBill Clinton
Preceded byBarbara Pryor
Succeeded byGay Daniels White
Personal details
Hillary Diane Rodham

(1947-10-26) October 26, 1947 (age 71)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic (1968–present)
Other political
Republican (before 1968)
Bill Clinton (m. 1975)
ChildrenChelsea Clinton
EducationWellesley College (BA)
Yale University (JD)
Net worthUS$45 million (October 2015)[1]
SignatureOfficial website

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and as the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.

Born in Chicago, Illinois and raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1973. After serving as a congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married Bill Clinton in 1975; the two had met at Yale. In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families. She was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978, and became the first female partner at Little Rock's Rose Law Firm the following year. As First Lady of Arkansas, she led a task force whose recommendations helped reform Arkansas's public schools.

As First Lady of the United States, Clinton was an advocate for gender equality and healthcare reform. Her marital relationship came under public scrutiny during the Lewinsky scandal, which led her to issue a statement that reaffirmed her commitment to the marriage. In 2000, Clinton was elected as the first female Senator from New York. She was reelected to the Senate in 2006. Running for president in 2008, she won far more delegates than any previous female candidate, but lost the Democratic nomination to Barack Obama.[2] During her tenure as U.S. Secretary of State in the Obama Administration from 2009 to 2013, Clinton responded to the Arab Spring by advocating military intervention in Libya. She helped to organize a diplomatic isolation and international sanctions regime against Iran, in an effort to force curtailment of that country's nuclear program; this would eventually lead to the multinational Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action agreement in 2015. Upon leaving her Cabinet position after Obama's first term, she wrote her fifth book and undertook speaking engagements.

Clinton made a second presidential run in 2016. She received the most votes and primary delegates in the 2016 Democratic primaries, and formally accepted her party's nomination for President of the United States on July 28, 2016 with vice presidential running mate Senator Tim Kaine. She became the first female candidate to be nominated for president by a major U.S. political party. She lost the presidential election to Republican opponent Donald Trump in the Electoral College, despite winning a plurality of the popular vote.[3] She received more than 65 million votes, the 3rd-highest count in a U.S. presidential election, behind Obama's victories in 2008 and 2012. This was the highest count by a losing presidential candidate. Following her loss, she wrote her third memoir, What Happened, and launched Onward Together, a political action organization dedicated to fundraising for progressive political groups.[4]

Early life and education

Early life

Hillary Diane Rodham was born on October 26, 1947, at Edgewater Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois.[5][6] She was raised in a United Methodist family that first lived in Chicago. When she was three years old, her family moved to the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge.[7] Her father, Hugh Rodham, was of English and Welsh descent,[8] and managed a small but successful textile business, which he had founded.[9] Her mother, Dorothy Howell, was a homemaker of Dutch, English, French Canadian (from Quebec), Scottish and Welsh descent.[8][10][11] Clinton has two younger brothers, Hugh and Tony.[12]

As a child, Rodham was a favorite student among her teachers at the public schools that she attended in Park Ridge.[14] She participated in swimming and softball and earned numerous badges as a Brownie and a Girl Scout.[14] She has often told a story[15][16][17] of being inspired by U.S. efforts during the Space Race and sending a letter to NASA around 1961 asking what she could do to become an astronaut, only to be informed that women were not being accepted into the program.[18] She attended Maine East High School, where she participated in the student council, the school newspaper and was selected for the National Honor Society.[5][19] She was elected class vice president for her junior year, but then lost the election for class president for her senior year against two boys, one of whom told her that "you are really stupid if you think a girl can be elected president".[20] For her senior year, she and other students were transferred to the then new Maine South High School, where she was a National Merit Finalist and was voted, "most likely to succeed". She graduated in 1965 in the top five percent of her class.[21]

Museum display case containing photographs, papers, shoes, doll, and other early childhood artifacts of Hillary Rodham's early life
Mementos of Hillary Rodham's early life are shown at the William J. Clinton Presidential Center

Rodham's mother wanted her to have an independent, professional career,[11] and her father, who was otherwise a traditionalist, felt that his daughter's abilities and opportunities should not be limited by gender.[22] She was raised in a politically conservative household,[11] and she helped canvass Chicago's South Side at age 13 after the very close 1960 U.S. presidential election. She saw evidence of electoral fraud (such as voting list entries showing addresses that were empty lots) against Republican candidate Richard Nixon,[23] and later volunteered to campaign for Republican candidate Barry Goldwater in the U.S. presidential election of 1964.[24]

Rodham's early political development was shaped most by her high school history teacher (like her father, a fervent anti-communist), who introduced her to Goldwater's The Conscience of a Conservative and by her Methodist youth minister (like her mother, concerned with issues of social justice), with whom she saw and afterwards briefly met, civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. at a 1962 speech in Chicago's Orchestra Hall.[25]

Wellesley College years

In 1965, Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College, where she majored in political science.[26][27] During her freshman year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans.[28][29] As the leader of this "Rockefeller Republican"-oriented group,[30] she supported the elections of moderate Republicans John Lindsay to Mayor of New York City and Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke to the United States Senate.[31] She later stepped down from this position. In 2003 Clinton would write that her views concerning the American Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War were changing in her early college years.[28] In a letter to her youth minister at that time, she described herself as "a mind conservative and a heart liberal".[32] In contrast to the factions in the 1960s that advocated radical actions against the political system, she sought to work for change within it.[33][34]

By her junior year, Rodham became a supporter of the antiwar presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy.[35] In early 1968, she was elected president of the Wellesley College Government Association and served through early 1969.[33][36] Following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Wellesley's black students to recruit more black students and faculty.[35] In her student government role, she played a role in keeping Wellesley from being embroiled in the student disruptions common to other colleges.[33][37] A number of her fellow students thought she might some day become the first female President of the United States.[33]

To help her better understand her changing political views, Professor Alan Schechter assigned Rodham to intern at the House Republican Conference and she attended the "Wellesley in Washington" summer program.[35] Rodham was invited by moderate New York Republican Representative Charles Goodell to help Governor Nelson Rockefeller's late-entry campaign for the Republican nomination.[35] Rodham attended the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach. However, she was upset by the way Richard Nixon's campaign portrayed Rockefeller and by what she perceived as the convention's "veiled" racist messages and left the Republican Party for good.[35] Rodham wrote her senior thesis, a critique of the tactics of radical community organizer Saul Alinsky, under Professor Schechter.[38] (Years later, while she was first lady, access to her thesis was restricted at the request of the White House and it became the subject of some speculation. The thesis was later released.[38])

In 1969, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts,[39] with departmental honors in political science.[38] After some fellow seniors requested that the college administration allow a student speaker at commencement, she became the first student in Wellesley College history to speak at the event. Her address followed that of commencement speaker Senator Edward Brooke.[36][40] After her speech, she received a standing ovation that lasted seven minutes.[33][41][42] She was featured in an article published in Life magazine,[43][44] due to the response to a part of her speech that criticized Senator Brooke.[40] She also appeared on Irv Kupcinet's nationally syndicated television talk show as well as in Illinois and New England newspapers.[45] That summer, she worked her way across Alaska, washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and sliming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez (which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhealthful conditions).[46]

Yale Law School and postgraduate studies

Rodham then entered Yale Law School, where she served on the editorial board of the Yale Review of Law and Social Action.[47] During her second year, she worked at the Yale Child Study Center,[48] learning about new research on early childhood brain development and working as a research assistant on the seminal work, Beyond the Best Interests of the Child (1973).[49][50] She also took on cases of child abuse at Yale–New Haven Hospital[49] and volunteered at New Haven Legal Services to provide free legal advice for the poor.[48] In the summer of 1970 she was awarded a grant to work at Marian Wright Edelman's Washington Research Project, where she was assigned to Senator Walter Mondale's Subcommittee on Migratory Labor. There she researched various migrant workers' issues including education, health and housing.[51] Edelman later became a significant mentor.[52] Rodham was recruited by political advisor Anne Wexler to work on the 1970 campaign of Connecticut U.S. Senate candidate Joseph Duffey, with Rodham later crediting Wexler with providing her first job in politics.[53]

In the spring of 1971, she began dating Bill Clinton, who was also a law student at Yale. During the summer, she interned at the Oakland, California, law firm of Treuhaft, Walker and Burnstein. The firm was well known for its support of constitutional rights, civil liberties and radical causes (two of its four partners were current or former Communist Party members);[54] Rodham worked on child custody and other cases.[a] Clinton canceled his original summer plans in order to live with her in California;[58] the couple continued living together in New Haven when they returned to law school.[55] The following summer, Rodham and Clinton campaigned in Texas for unsuccessful 1972 Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern.[59] She received a Juris Doctor degree from Yale in 1973,[39] having stayed on an extra year to be with Clinton.[60] He first proposed marriage to her following graduation but she declined, uncertain if she wanted to tie her future to his.[60]

Rodham began a year of postgraduate study on children and medicine at the Yale Child Study Center.[61] In late 1973 her first scholarly article, "Children Under the Law", was published in the Harvard Educational Review.[62] Discussing the new children's rights movement, the article stated that "child citizens" were "powerless individuals"[63] and argued that children should not be considered equally incompetent from birth to attaining legal age, but instead that courts should presume competence except when there is evidence otherwise, on a case-by-case basis.[64] The article became frequently cited in the field.[65]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hillary Clinton
Alemannisch: Hillary Clinton
aragonés: Hillary Clinton
asturianu: Hillary Clinton
azərbaycanca: Hillari Klinton
Bân-lâm-gú: Hillary Rodham Clinton
беларуская: Хілары Клінтан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гілары Клінтан
Bikol Central: Hillary Rodham Clinton
български: Хилъри Клинтън
Boarisch: Hillary Clinton
bosanski: Hillary Clinton
brezhoneg: Hillary Clinton
davvisámegiella: Hillary Clinton
Ελληνικά: Χίλαρι Κλίντον
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Hillary Clinton
español: Hillary Clinton
Esperanto: Hillary Clinton
føroyskt: Hillary Clinton
français: Hillary Clinton
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hillary Clinton
hornjoserbsce: Hillary Clinton
Bahasa Indonesia: Hillary Clinton
Interlingue: Hillary Clinton
íslenska: Hillary Clinton
italiano: Hillary Clinton
Basa Jawa: Hillary Clinton
kernowek: Hillary Clinton
Lëtzebuergesch: Hillary Clinton
lietuvių: Hillary Clinton
lumbaart: Hillary Clinton
македонски: Хилари Клинтон
მარგალური: ჰილარი კლინტონი
Bahasa Melayu: Hillary Rodham Clinton
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟီလာရီ ကလင်တန်
Nederlands: Hillary Clinton
Nedersaksies: Hillary Clinton
norsk nynorsk: Hillary Clinton
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hillary Clinton
Plattdüütsch: Hillary Clinton
português: Hillary Clinton
Ripoarisch: Hillary Clinton
română: Hillary Clinton
Runa Simi: Hillary Clinton
sicilianu: Hillary Clinton
Simple English: Hillary Clinton
slovenčina: Hillary Clintonová
slovenščina: Hillary Clinton
ślůnski: Hillary Clinton
Soomaaliga: Hillary Clinton
српски / srpski: Хилари Клинтон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hillary Clinton
Taqbaylit: Hillary Clinton
татарча/tatarça: Һиллари Клинтон
Türkçe: Hillary Clinton
українська: Гілларі Клінтон
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھىلاري كلىنتون
Tiếng Việt: Hillary Clinton
粵語: 希拉莉
žemaitėška: Hilarė Klėntuon